The overall aim of the Joint Programming is to pool national research efforts, by the efficient use of Europe's public R&D funds, and by tackling common European grand societal challenges, which are beneficial for society and European competitiveness. This aim is shared with the Member States’ common vision for strategic research agendas on addressing those major societal challenges.
The ERA-NETs under Horizon Europe will be implemented by using a specific type of action: ERA-NET Cofund merging the former ERA-NET and ERA-NET Plus into a single instrument with the central and compulsory element of implementing one substantial call with top-up funding from the Commission. The focus of ERA-NETs is therefore shifting from the funding of networks to the top-up funding of single joint calls for transnational research and innovation in selected areas with high European added value and relevance for Horizon Europe.
Joint Technology Initiatives evolved out of a limited number of European Technology Platforms (ETPs) that bring together industry and other stakeholders on specific topics to define research priorities. JTIs are a means to implement the Strategic Research Agendas (SRAs) of some of these European Technology Platforms.
Initiatives based on Article 185 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (= TFEU) foresee the participation of the EU in the joint implementation of national research and development programmes.